Photo tips, tricks and my latest captures


Focus stacking for sharper images


Alabama Hills, Lone Pine, California

D800, F22, 1/4 second, ISO 400, 38mm(24-70/F2.8)

Depth of focus increases  when a smaller aperture is used. However this comes at a price.   Certain amount of  light get dispersed when the light hits the edge of the lens aperture blade when passing through it. The light dispersion cause softness and this is called diffraction. Less light get diffracted when the aperture is larger. The diffraction limit of the lens is the aperture at which the diffraction is noticeable.

Another factor affecting the diffraction is the pixel  size of the  sensor. Diffraction limit sets in sooner with a smaller pixel size. A crop APC sensor( which has smaller pixels)  will reach the diffraction limit before a full frame sensor with larger pixels.

Cambridge in Color has a nice article explaining this

There are many calculators that are available online to find out the diffraction limit of your camera/lens combo.

Landscape photographers want highly detailed sharp images with everything in focus. The best way to achieved this is by  focus stacking. The lens is sharpest when it is stopped down one or two stops from its widest aperture. If you have a 16-35/F4 lens like I do, the sharpest images are produced when the aperture is set between 5.6 and F8.  Beyond that the image can get  soft due to diffraction. Focus stacking is the technique where multiple images are taken at different focus points from near to far and combining them  later. This can be done in Photoshop or using a specialized program called helicon focus.

Another way to achieve this is to use a tilt/shift lens.

The image above was taken in Alabama Hills near Lone Pine, California.  That day I was staying near Bishop and planning to shoot the sunrise at Mono Lake which is nearly an hour north. The weather that morning brought high winds and snow to the higher elevations making the drive to mono lake unsafe.  We quickly changed plans and headed to Lone Pine. This gave us very little time to find an interesting scene for the sunrise. When I found this particular rock with the cactus in the foreground, the best of the sunrise was in full swing. I did not have time to focus stack the scene. Instead I decided to use a smaller F stop to get both foreground and the distant mountain in focus.  The focus point was set  just beyond the cactus.  At 100% magnification the background mountain range appears slightly soft but I can still print this big without any problems as long  as viewing is  done at a  normal distance.

harshaj_131117_148 copy 3webFB
This next image is taken in Escalante wilderness in Utah. This particular slot canyon is appropriately named spooky. Part of the passageway leading to the arch narrows down to about 10″. Not a good place if you are claustrophobic . I had to walk sideways to squeeze through the narrowest areas. Setting up the tripod was a challenge due to narrow confines and uneven surface. The nearest sands stone wall was only inches from the camera while the arch with light filtering through was several feet away. This was a perfect scene for focus stacking. Once I was happy with the composition I turned the camera to manual mode. . The angle of the camera was such that I could not comfortably use the camera live view for focusing. Instead I used the focus ring. The nearest wall was a foot away so I turned the focus ring to 1 foot mark. This was repeated several times to get at least 4 different focal points from near to far. No exposure bracketing was done. How many focus points to take depends on several factors.
1. Aperture. Smaller the aperture, larger the dof. If you decided on a larger aperture you may need several shots with different focal points.
2. Lens. Wide angle lens have incredible DOF. My 14mm lens on a full frame camera has a wide dof. If the closest subject is more than 3 feet away most of the scene is going to be in focus. In that situation I can choose to shoot at infinity and take one shot. The opposite is true with longer focal lengths. DOF calculator on a smart phone can be very helpful.
3. DOF on a full frame sensor is shallower than a crop sensor

Once you got the shots you can use several programs to blend them together or do it manually. PS does a very good job of doing this for you.

This is how you do this in PS

1. You need to get the images as layers into PS. If you’re a LR user select the images you want to stack and right-click them. In the floating menu click on edit in and choose open as layers in PS

2. Next you need to auto align the images. Once you have all your images as layers in PS, click on the top layer and then Shift-click on the bottom layer to select all the layers in the stack. Then go to edit and select auto align layers. Select auto and click OK

3. Next you need to auto blend these layers. Make sure you still have all the layers selected. Go to edit and then select auto blend layers. Then  select  Stack Images and make sure  Seamless Tones and Colors is checked. Click OK.

4. Now you are done. Enlarge the image 100% and check carefully for any errors. Then process the image as usual.

Bristlecone pine tree under the canopy of the Milky Way Galaxy

Bristlecone pine trees are some of the oldest living things in the world. They are found at very high elevations usually above 9000 feet. They prefer soil rich in dolomite. Dolomite has a high concentration of calcium magnesium carbonate (very alkaline) and only very few species can grow in this soil. Bristlecone pines thrive in this harsh environment. This particular forest is part of the Inyo National Forest in California. Getting there is easy. Take highway 168 just north of Big Pine. Follow Hwy 168 east 13 miles to White Mountain Road. Turn left (north) and drive 10 miles to the Schulman Grove Visitor Center. There is a $3 fee. If your pressed for time take the Discovery trail (1 mile) which is shorter but has two of the most famous photogenic  trees. This tree had been dead for a while. Harshaj_061207_1655web This living tree ( 3000-4000 yrs old) sits right next to the dead tree. Harshaj_061206_1505web The Methuselah Trail is 4.5 miles long and has an elevation gain of 900 feet. This trail takes you to the world’s oldest tree. The tree is estimated to be 4,743 years old and not marked to avoid vandalism. This is a view looking south from the Methuselah Trail. harshaj_130711_375web Patriarch Grove Take the gavel road for 12 miles  from  Schulman Grove . The Patriarch Gove has the largest Bristlecone pine tree in the world. It is well-marked on the  Timberline Ancients Nature Trail.  Elevation here is at least 11, 000 feet. If you walk southwest from  the parking lot for less than 1/4 mile you come across several very photogenic pine trees. harshaj_130710_307web This brings me to the title picture that is displayed above.  In the next post I will talk about planning and making this shot. Stay tuned.

Auto ISO and when to use it.


F5.6, 1/1000, ISO 1600, 850mm

Auto ISO is a useful  but not well understood feature available in newer DSLRs and point and shoot cameras. When this is enabled, cameras automatically change the iso frame by frame to achieve the best image quality (at least in theory).

ISO is the measure of sensor sensitivity to the light. At the base ISO, the sensor produces its best image. After that the light signal is boosted to obtain increase sensitivity which produces noise.

Auto ISO was first  implemented in Nikon DSLRs starting in 2004( D70). It was less useful at that time due to limited ISO range in earlier sensors. Newer DSLRs have better and effient sensors that can handle a wide range of ISOs. For instance my Nikon D800 has an  ISO range of 100-6400. New Canon 1Dx goes from 100-51200.

I found that the auto iso can be very beneficial in situations where the lighting conditions change rapidly (i.e. if you’re photographing a theater production that has different lighting for different scenes). You want to keep the shutter speed reasonably high to get sharp pictures but want a lower ISO setting when the scene is bright. With auto ISO you can tell the camera to shoot say between ISO 100-3200 and keep the shutter speed around 1/400 second. If there is enough light the camera will drop the iso to the lowest  possible number, maintaining a shutter speed of 400. When the light is low it will increase the ISO to achieve the correct exposure at 1/400 of second.

Another instance where I would use this is when photographing birds in flight on partially cloudy days . I encountered this recently when I was visiting lock and dam 14, Mississippi River on 1/7/13. The day was  mostly cloudy with sun breaking through from time to time. The light was changing constantly. I set the minimum shutter speed at  1/1600 of second and set the camera to aperture priority. Iso range was set between 200-1000. During the entire session I had a minimum shutter speed of 1/1600  and many sharp pictures.

General rule of thumb is to set the minimum shutter speed at 1/ focal length of the lens you’re using. For instance if you’re using a 200mm lens set the minimum shutter speed at 1/200 second.

Consider auto iso feature a safety net. Use it in conditions where you don’t have time to fiddle with the settings.

For best results use a conservative iso range.

Using auto ISO in manual mode gives the most control. More about this later.


 F5.6, 1/1000, 850mm, iso1600

So How does it work?

Different camera brands implement this feature in a slightly different way. Most of my experience is from using Nikon cameras but can be applied to any camera brand.

First thing you need to know is the useful ISO range for your camera.  You cannot go by the manufacturer’s specs. The useful ISO range is much more limited than what is specified  by the manufacturer. For instance my Nikon D800 has a ISO range of 100-6400. Most of the time I am only comfortable using between 100-1600 ISO range . Your limits might vary depending on the subject and your tolerance of the image noise.

Next thing you have to decide is what exposure mode to use. Most cameras allow you to shoot in three basic modes.  These are manual mode, aperture priority or shutter priority. Some camera brands call these modes by different names, ( Canon call there’s Manual, AV mode and TV mode). I prefer to use aperture priority mode.

In aperture priority mode you select the aperture you want and the minimum shutter speed. The iso changes when the correct exposure cannot be maintained by the given aperture.

In manual setting (M mode) the iso changes if the shutter speed and the aperture you selected won’t achieve the desired exposure.  Auto ISO in manual mode can be a powerful tool enabling control over both the shutter speed and the aperture, letting the camera control the iso.

In shutter priority( TV mode) you set the minimum shutter speed and the camera changes the aperture and the iso to maintain that shutter speed.

How do you set your camera to use Auto ISO?Capture 1

Here is how I do it in my Nikon camera. Go to the shooting menu and choose ISO sensitivity settings.

Capture 2

Turn on the Auto ISO . In the sub menu you have the option to set the maximum iso you can tolerate and the minimum shutter speed you want.

In my D800, instead of setting the minimum shutter speed  I have the option of choosing auto. If this is selected the camera sets the shutter speed at 1/focal length of the lens.


F5.6, 1/1000, iso 1000, 400mm

When not to use auto ISO

You are at the mercy of the camera when using this feature so be aware of  the following

1. If your camera is old and has a limited useful ISO range.

2. If the lighting conditions are stable, it is better to use either manual or one of the other modes where you have more control.

3.  If the target area covers only a small portion of the overall scene, there is a possibility that the the metering system may get the exposure wrong. In such cases all the images you capture may have the wrong exposure so it is wise to make sure the histogram is correct  from time to time..

4. Be very cautious using auto ISO with spot metering. Matrix metering or center weighted metering  modes are preferred .

5. Landscape photography.

6. In creative photography such as in a studio where you might want a certain look.  eg.  a silhouette.

7. Be conservative when setting the iso range .  Otherwise you may end up with noisy images.

8. Does not work with flash.  If flash is used shutter speed revert back to cameras flash sync speed. eg, 1/250 sec.

9. If you want a consistent look to your series of  pictures so you can batch process them later, do not use auto ISO.

I love to hear your thoughts if you are using this feature.

Photographing the Milky Way Galaxy.

The Universe and Beyond by Terrence Dickinson is one of my favorite astronomy books. After reading the book, I was fascinated by the complexity and mystery of the universe. I started researching and found out that I can take milky way shots with the equipment I already have.

Joshua Tree forest with milky way in the background.

harshaj_130207_91blogD800, 16-35/F4 at 19mm, iso 6400, 30 seconds

Here is a shot of Old Faithful under the milky way taken during my recent trip to Yellowstone.


D800, 16-35/F4 at 16mm, iso 6400, 30 seconds

Milky Way is our own resident galaxy. It is 10 billion years old. The sun is located in one of the outer spiral arms, 27,000 light years from the center. From edge to edge it spreads over 90,000  light years. The bulging disk at the center is 10,000 light years thick.  It is home to about 200 billion stars. The center of the galaxy is a giant black hole. Milky way is clearly visible in a moonless night.

If you’re lucky you may even see the andromeda galaxy, the only other galaxy visible to the naked eye. It is about 2.4 million light years from earth.( one light year = 6 trillion years)  In the above image  the andromeda galaxy is seen in the upper right part of the image at the edge of the frame. Our galaxy and the andromeda galaxy belongs to what is called the local group that contains about 50 other galaxies.

The Andromeda and the Milky Way galaxies are  on a collision course and speeding at each other at 1.2 million miles an hour. NASA projects that in 4 billion years from now  the two will crash head on . I hope I live to see the fireworks when that happens.


Death Valley National Park, D800, 16-35/F4 at 16mm, iso 6400, 30 seconds

Milky way is best seen in summer months. At this time of the year we are looking  towards the center of the galaxy and away from it in the winter. However to really see the spectacle of milky way you may have to drive an hour or two away from the nearest city. Wait another 20 minutes to allow the eyes to adjust to the darkness.

A compelling image of  the Milky Way  can be made  without fancy equipment .

1. Equipment.

You need a DSLR. Newer full frame DSLRs can handle noise well and better suited for this kind of work. Crop sensor DSLR will still work but noise can ruin the image if you raise the iso too high. Fast wide-angle lens is the next requirement. I would recommend a lens with at least 24mm wide. Wider is better. I used my 16-35/F4 lens at 16mm for the above shot. Because the stars are so faint, the lens need to gather much light as possible. F2.8 lens is perfect but F4 lens will do too. Use the self timer or a cable release to avoid camera motion. Sturdy tripod is a must. Head lamp is useful to see and adjust the camera setting in the dark.

2. Location.

Find an area that is away from light pollution and city lights. Here is a link to Dark sky finder that helps to find the darkest areas in North America. It is an overlay of  a light pollution map on the google map of North America.

The Photographer’s Ephemeris (TPE) is program that can be useful. It will tell you the times of sunset/sunrise and moonrise/set.

For brighter skies time your shots during the new moon.

Presence of foreground elements make a better shot. This could be a tree, a mountain range or something iconic like old faithful.

3. Settings.

The idea is to get much light as possible to your sensor. Try the highest ISO that your sensor can handle before noise creeps in. In the above example I used ISO 6400 on my nikon d800. You may be able to getaway with ISO 3200 in a moonless night. Use the largest or the widest aperture available on your lens. To avoid star trails the shutter speed needs to be less than 30 seconds. A good way to find out the longest shutter speed you can get away without star trails is to divide 600 by your lens diameter. For instance if you use a 24mm lens the maximum shutter speed you can use is 600/24= 25 seconds. This calculation is for full frame sensor. If you are using a crop camera make adjustments( even shorter shutter speeds). Turn on your long exposure noise reduction in your camera menu. Shoot raw.

However if you are more ambitious and planning to print big, you need  a camera mount that track the earth rotation.(equatorial tracking mount).  This allows you to use a lower ISO and a longer exposure for brighter and better quality images. AstroTrac TT320X-AG is   a reasonably price  mount that sell for about $550.  Another more compact mount that sell for $399 can be found here

4. Technique..

Set the camera to manual mode. Set the aperture and shutter speed manually. I usually use the bulb mode and time the exposure using my watch or cell phone. In the above picture, the settings were as follows. F4, 30 seconds and ISO 6400. On your lens turn off the AF and set the focus ring to infinity. Use a piece of tape on the focus ring so it wont accidentally rotate. Use a remote trigger or self timer.

5. Test shots.

Take few test shots. To save time, increase your iso to say 24,00 or 51000 and expose for 10 seconds. Don’t pay attention to the quality of the image. Your are now trying to compose the shot. Pay attention to your foreground elements and the horizon.Once you are satisfied with the image go back to the recommended settings.

6. Post processing may need curve adjustments, selective sharpening and noise reduction.

7. Useful accessories

Head light, cable release, tape, watch ,tripod and ball head.

Smartphone apps night sky and star walk ( can help you navigate the dark sky. I use sky walk. You can point the smart phone or iPad to the sky during day time when scouting the location. The projected position of stars and the milky way at a given time is shown on the app which is very useful in  planning the shot.



Here is another milky way image taken in Badlands National Park, South Dakota.

Clear skies.


Setting Exposure for Bald Eagle Photography at Lock and Dam 14 by Larry Williams

Harsha asked me to provide a short Blog on how I set up exposure for photographing Bald Eagles at Lock and Dam 14.  This is not an easy endeavor to undertake.  The migratory eagles are at Lock and Dam 14 from December through February.  The skies are usually over-cast 90% of the time.  Under these circumstances, selecting the correct exposure to photograph eagles in flight is a challenge because they have very white heads and tails with extremely dark bodies and little light to work with.


Like many of you, bird photography is my recreational passion.  Setting exposure in shifting light is a continual challenge and a learning experience which I’m forever trying to improve.

Exposure generally consists of three elements: aperture, shutter speed, and ISO.  However, in my opinion, how the camera measures light and White Balance (WB) are two other factors that contribute to a well exposed photograph.


Utilizing a Canon EOS-1D Mark IV and a Canon EF 500mm f/4 L lens, I start off with the following settings:

                        ISO: 400

                        Shutter Speed: 1/1600 of a second

                        f/stop: 5.6

                        Light Meter: Evaluative, Partial, Spot Metering

                        White Balance: Auto WB

                        Mode: Manual

ISO: I try to use the lowest ISO possible which is usually 400, but I will adjust the ISO from 100 to 1600 depending on the available light.  Higher ISO settings often tend to become “noisy” or “grainy”.  Each model of camera has its’ own limitations.  The newer cameras like Nikon D800, Nikon D4, Canon 1DX, and Canon 5D Mark III are producing some excellent noise free photographs at extremely high ISO settings.  (More on this later in “Putting it all together“.)

Shutter Speed:  I like to use 1/1600 of a second to help freeze the eagles wings and to decrease camera shake.  Remember, just because you might be using a tripod, there is still shaking of the camera.  Eagles are not Hummingbirds, they have a relative slow wing beat.  You can freeze their wing motion with as little shutter speed as 1/1000 of a second.  (More on this later in “Putting it all together“.)

f/stop:  I start out using an f/stop of 5.6.  The widest aperture of my 500mm lens is f/4.  I’m not to concern with Depth of Field, because telephoto lenses give very shallow DOF.  (More on this later in “Putting it all together“.)

Light Meter: I have used Evaluative, Partial, and Spot Metering in the past. If you can hold the “Spot Meter” on a flying eagle, that’s probably the most accurate, however, I have been using Evaluative Metering lately because I can’t hold the “Spot Meter” on the moving subject.  Heck, I’m lucky to keep the bird in my frame.  In my opinion, each of the above metering systems end up taking a light reading of the background usually the sky or water. (More on this later in “Putting it all together“.)

White Balance: I use Auto WB about 95% of the time.  White Balance can be adjusted in Post Processing as needed, but usually, it’s pretty much on the mark.

Mode:  I use Manual Mode probably 90% of the time.  The other 10% is either Aperture Priority or Shutter Priority.  (More on this later in “Putting it all together“.)

I then point the camera at the Service Lock and take a light reading on the gray paint of the doors.  This light reading gives you a perspective of the available light.  I use the color of this door to obtain a “Neutral Gray” light reading.  It may not be an exact rendition of a “Neutral Grey” exposure card, but it’s close enough.  “Neutral Gray” can be thought of as a color in the middle of absolute black (no light at all) and absolute white (100% of all colors in the light spectrum).  Kind of in the middle of the Eagle’s white head and their dark body.  Hymmmm. 

Looking at the meter, I determine what the exposure is.  It could be under-exposed or over-exposed.  The degree of exposure is also shown by the swing of the pointer into the positive or negative light meter bar.


Putting It All Together


The first exposure correction that I make is usually to adjust the ISO.  I adjust this setting so that I am “over-exposing” a bit. 

I generally expose for the white of the eagles’ head.  Why? Because when an eagle is in flight and the background is the sky, “lightmeters” will read the sky not the eagle, thus under exposing the bird.  If the “light meter” is set in the Spot or Partial Metering Mode, you still get a light reading of the sky because of the difficulty in holding the spot on the bird, therefore I have been using the Evaluative Metering Mode.

Manual Mode

As stated above this is the mode that I use most of the time.  I have my camera setup so that I can adjust exposure from the neutral position with a flick of my index finger, controlling the f/stop using the Main Dial next to the shutter release, or by thumbing the Quick Control Dial on the back of the camera for shutter speeds. 

Using the Main Dial, I can open up the exposure by clicking it to the left one or two times from f/5.6 to either f/4.5 or f/4 or closing the aperture down by clicking it to the right.  The “sweet spot” of my 500mm lens is at f/4.5, however, by originally setting the f/stop to f/5.6 I have more room to increase or decrease exposure at will.  Usually, I only have time to adjust it by one or two clicks either way.

Using the Quick Control Dial virtually does the same thing for exposure, but utilizing the Shutter Speed.  By setting the original shutter speed to 1/1600, I then can then decrease it to 1/1250 or 1/1000 or up to 1/2000 well within good wing freezing speed as needed.

Shutter Priority

After setting the “Neutral Gray”, you can set your camera mode to “Shutter Priority”.

For the most part, this will give you some good photos, however, by sliding the exposure wheel to the right 1/3 to 2 f/stops you will over expose the photo to compensate for the light meters‘ reading of the sky.  This then will give you a better exposed eagle, but the sky will be very bright.  I’m usually more concern with good exposure of the bird, not the sky.

Aperture Priority

This mode basically works the same way as the Shutter Priority except you are dialing in the Aperture that you desire.

I use Shutter and Aperture Priority when the light is constantly changing.  For example, on a sunny day with a lot of Cumulus Clouds drifting by, the subject (eagle) can fly into and out of either the shadows of  clouds or into or out of the sunlight.

Auto ISO

Auto ISO is becoming a very good tool.  I think it’s best used in either Shutter or Aperture Priority.



Photographers at LD 14


A Couple of Helpful Hints


1.   Under exposure causes “noise”. 

2.  Looking at the histogram also helps to a degree, but remember, you are exposing for the bird, not the sky or water.

3.  A photograph that is a bit over exposed will give you less noise and more color to work with.  A balance of “Black” and “White” is really what exposure is all about.  Remember, “Black” is void of color and “White” has all colors.  To dark gives you noise and less to work with in Post Processing, to much light is like looking at the sun, it’s blinding, and called “Burned Highlights”.

4.  After you have everything set, take a few photos of the seagulls.  This will show you what your exposures are like.

5.  The light is always changing, so constantly check your exposure either by metering the gray door, or shooting gulls.

Good shooting!

About Larry.


Larry ‘s first camera was a “Kodiak Instamatic“.  He purchased his first SLR camera in 1968 while serving in Viet Nam as a Combat Medic with the 9th Infantry Division of the U. S. Army.  In those days, Canon had just incorporated a light sensing system in the Canon FT QL SLR 35mm camera which cost $150.

After returning home, Larry graduated from college and later became a Registered Respiratory Therapist.  The majority of his working career was dedicated to directing the Cardiopulmonary and Neurodiagnostics Services at Agnesian Healthcare in Fond du Lac, WI.  He initiated a hospital based Durable Medical Equipment company, a Sleep Disorders Center, a family practice clinic, along with many other endeavors.

The joy of his life is interacting with  his two adult daughters, Sarah and Elizabeth and both granddaughters.  His partner, Gloria keeps him on track and greatly encourages his photography.

Larry’s passion for nature photography keeps him “Chasing the Light” at home in Silvis, IL and throughout North America and the Caribbean.  His favorite subjects are Eagles and Hummingbirds.  When in the Caribbean, while Gloria soaks up the sun on the beaches, Larry is out scouting the islands with camera in hand for indigenous hummingbirds.  It’s always a thrill to travel to new places with his photo friends.  Nature photographers have a deep connection that is always a learning and joyful encounter.

Photographing Bald Eagles, Lock and Dam 14, Mississippi River 2013


Each January I look forward to visiting Lock and Dam 14 on the  Mississippi river in Le Clair, Iowa. Eagle numbers peak during the second and third week of January. Last year was a complete flop. Warm weather and a plummeting shag population kept the eagles away from this particular dam. Lock and Dam 14 does not usually have the biggest concentration of eagles. However it is the best place to take pictures of fishing bald eagles.

Please read my blog post from last year here.

More Eagle pictures can be seen here!i=1194847071&k=7qLHC89

Arieal view of LD 14

LD 14

During the eagle season the platform can get very crowded and so if you are planning a visit try to get there early. The best time of the day is between 11AM to 4.30 PM.  Foggy mornings can offer interesting creative opportunities. After 4PM the sun goes down behind the tree line and the river is in the shade. Photography can be OK all day on cloudy overcast conditions.  Sunny early afternoon with southwest wind is an ideal day for eagle photography.


I have listed a few suggestions below that may be helpful:

1.  Eagle activity is sporadic and you may be standing there  for several hours in subzero temperatures.  Dress warm. Wear layers. My toes tend to get very cold . I wear a  sock liner, woollen socks and snow boots to keep them   warm. The chemical heating pads can save the day.

2. There are a few photographers who will get fish to feed the eagles. This benefits everybody. Think about contributing  few dollars to the person supplying the fish.

3. Keep extra batteries in your coat pocket. The camera batteries can drain quickly in this cold weather.

4. I have my long lens( 600, 500 or 400) on a tripod and a medium telephoto lens( 200, 300 or 400) around by shoulder. The medium telephoto is useful for eagles flying overhead and when they fish  closer to the platform.

5. Get the exposure right. It can be challenging to get the feather details properly  exposed  without over exposing the white head. A little bit of over exposure in the whites can be recovered in software especially if you shoot raw. Recovering under exposed shadow areas can  result in noise.   Histogram in the LCD screen is your friend.  I have my camera LCD set to showing the blinkies. ( over exposed area start blinking). Adjust the exposure so your histogram is all the way to the right without going over.  Since lighting conditions can change quickly you need to keep an eye on the histogram from time to time. If you are new to photography, I would recommend using aperture priority.  Many experience photographers like the manual setting. They meter  neutral target( something grey or green) and adjust the exposure off of that.


When the conditions are cloudy with diffuse lighting I tend to add + exposure compensation. This can go as high as +1. When it is sunny I tend to keep zero or even – compensation. This varies between different brands of cameras or different camera models of the same brand.

6. Maintained at least a minimum sutter speed of 1/1000 second to freeze the action. Higher is better.  1/800 will give you blurry wing tips which conveys a sense of motion. If the light is good I try to crank up my aperture to 7.1 or 8 get more depth of focus.


7.Lately I have been using Auto ISO in my camera successfully. It takes lots of the guess-work out of the equation. I set my d800 and d3 cameras as follows. Go to menu and turn on auto iso . In aperture priority mode you select the aperture you want and the minimum shutter speed. The iso changes when the correct exposure cannot be maintained by the given aperture.  In manual setting (M mode)  the iso changes if the shutter speed and the aperture you selected won’t achieve the desired exposure. In shutter priority( S mode) you set the minimum shutter speed and the camera changes the aperture and the iso to maintain that shutter speed.

I recommend following auto iso settings to start with.

Aperture priority, Aperture 5.6( if light is good I will go as high as 8 and  if  light is bad go wide open), iso range 100-1000, minimum shutter speed of  1000 (but I will dial this up to 1250 or 1600 if the light is good)


8. These are my Nikon D800 AF settings for eagle photography.

AF-on button activate the AF.(a4)

Drive mode set to CH(high)

AF-C and Af points to D-9

a1 – Release
a3 – Short to Normal
a6 – on
a7 – 51
a8 – off

Metering- My default metering is matrix metering. I use this for 95% of the time and works well.  Only instance when this may not work is when shooting in bright sunny days and the eagle is backlit. In those instances I use center weighted matrix metering.

9.. Flash with a flash extender can be useful but I rarely use it.


10. Take care of your equipment. The platform is full people from fisherman lugging their gear  to kids running around . They can easily bump into your gear and topple them. Worse the gear can go overboard. I witnessed a Nikon 600mm lens and a D800($15000) fall into Mississippi river just last week.

11. Bring a snack

Botswana 2012 Trip summery


Pied kingfisher, Chobe River.

Please read the earlier post that describes the preparation for the trip and the equipment list.


We had five in our group. Three were shooting nikon and two had canons. All cameras worked without problems.

I used 200-400 with a 1.4 TC 80% of the time. D3 and 70-200 was used 15%. 24-70 was used seldom for landscapes. I did not miss my 600VR. I really like the zoom feature of the 200-400.

I also enjoyed the nikon v1 with the 10-30 lens as a point and shoot camera. Obviously it was more than PS camera. V1 was attached to my long lens with the adaptor when my lens on the DSLR was not long enough. The quality of the images were quite good. When there was action I gave the V1 to my driver to video tape the scene.

All of the places had vehicles that were not ideal for the use of bean bags. We modified the vehicles by tying two poles to each side of the vehicle so we can place the bean bags over them. This worked great. The molar bags fitted the poles better than the kinesis bags. Julie used her puffin pad from the vehicle and she liked it. She never used her super clamps that she brought. I would recommend carrying bungee cords to secure the bean bags and the camera bags to prevent them from flying off the vehicles. Tripod was used few times for the sunset pictures.

Gura gear kibuku bag worked well. It carried all my gear both in the plane and the safari vehicle. In the safari vehicle I looped a bungee cord around the side handle and secured it to the seat. I wished it had a laptop compartment so I didn’t have to bring a separate laptop bag.

My fear about carrying heavy hand luggage in Air Botswana flight was unfounded. They never checked the weight of the hand luggage. It weighed twice the allowed weight.

iPad used for reading and I wrote this blog post using WordPress app. All the camera manuals were stored in the iPad for easy reference.

My hyperdrive storage device malfunctioned. It would only download part of the images from the Lexa 1000x card. I should have tested the combo before bringing on the trip. Also check your card reader to make sure it works with your cards. Bringing two card readers in case of failure. I used my laptop to make two copies of the images to the laptop hard drive and external passport drive. I shot nearly 250GB of images. This was partly due to large file sizes of D 800. I also brought enough CF cards in case my hard drive failed.

Wonpro Universal 5-Outlet Power Strip with Surge Protector  that I brought was very helpful. Many of the places we stayed had only few outlets and finding outlets to charge all the gear was a challenge. I also used Botswana to USA converter to plug in my power cord to theirs.

Weather was very pleasant and the cloud formations were gorgeous. We had few rain showers but not enough to interfere with the game drives. The prices were 40% cheaper compared to peak season in July-September. The game viewing was excellent but we had to work hard to find the animals due to availability of the water.

I did not use my rain coat at all. All the vehicles had garbage bags to protect the gear and good quality parkas for the guests. Mosquito repellent was never used.

It is not a bad idea to take some rehydration electrolytes in case you develop diarrhea.

One of the other members of the trip Rich had this to say.

·         Point and shoot camera is helpful, especially for grab shoots around camp

·         Took more pictures than I thought I would – especially with the camera set on high-speed in case action happened.  Important to be ready for action, so keep set on high-speed.

·         Feet for big lens is helpful on bean bags (see Wimberley Module 1 – M-1 / pair of these mounted on each end of QR plate will help the lens be more stable)

·         Small paper notebook or small recorder to get names correct. ( I used the voice recording function of D3 instead of a tape recorder.)

·         Did not use 16-35 but 24-105 was very handy.  Lens were 24-105, 70-300 and 500 with TCs.

·         Wimberley head was overkill – did not use it enough to justify weight.  Full sized ball head would have sufficed.

·         Limit clothing.  5 changes of tee shirts, socks, underwear is sufficient with 3 changes of pants and long sleeve shirts (2 might work but extra just in case)

·         Cap clip – hats are easily blown off in windy vehicles